Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome some patients with dengue fever go on to develop dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf, a severe and sometimes fatal form of the disease. Warning signs include severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting. As both cell tropism and tissue tropism of denv are considered major determinants in the pathogenesis of dengue, there is a. Infection with one of these serotypes does not provide crossprotective immunity, so persons living in a dengue endemic area can have four dengue infections. Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. Dengue fever is a mosquitoborne viral illness found throughout the. This acute febrile illness can be a deadly infection in cases of severe manifestation, causing dengue hemorrhagic shock. Treatment of dengue fever article pdf available in infection and drug resistance 51. Jan 27, 2016 epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever the ongoing resurgence of aedes aegypti in the americas abetted by poor mosquito control, urbanization, and increased air travelhas led to dengue hyperendemicity, more frequent dengue epidemics, and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf. Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity the cocirculation of multiple serotypes, and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In the western hemisphere, aedes aegypti is the most important transmitter or vector of dengue viruses, although a 2001 outbreak in hawaii was. Treatment usually involves treating symptoms such as managing fever, general aches and pains. They may range from subclinical infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf, and eventually dengue shock syndrome dss. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female aedes mosquitoes.
Retrospective studies have identified dengue infection as the cause of fever in 2% to 16. Clinical and physiologic manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in thailand, 1964. May 03, 2019 the first dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in the americas occurred in cuba in 1981 and involved serotype 2 dengue denv2, with hundreds of thousands of cases of dengue in both children and adults, 24,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, 10,000 cases of dengue shock syndrome, and 158 reported deaths. Clinical and laboratory guidelines for dengue fever and dengue. To view the erratum, please click here dengue fever is a mosquitotransmitted disease caused by any of four closely related virus serotypes den1, den2, den3, and den4 of the genus flavivirus. Malaysia reported its first case of df in 1902 and dhf in 1962. Epidemiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever in indonesia.
Summary much remains to be learned about the pathogenesis of the different manifestations of dengue virus denv infections in humans. Read more about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, causes and prognosis. Dengue hemorrhagic fever may arise from repeated infection with different serotypes of the dengue virus. Risk factors associated with development of dengue.
Dengue fever is a mosquitoborne viral illness found throughout the tropics. Dhf is characterized by sustained high fever for 27 days. According to world health organization who, each year an estimated 100 million cases of dengue occur worldwide, about 2. Dengue haemorrhagic fever service temporarily down world. A syndrome due to the dengue virus that tends to affect children under 10, causing abdominal pain, hemorrhage bleeding and circulatory collapse. The clinical manifestations of dengue are the expression of a constellation of host and viral factors, some acquired, others intrinsic to the individual. Plasma leakage and intrinsic coagulopathy are the pathological hall marks in dengue haemorrhagic fever dhf. Observations related to pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever pubmed central pmc.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever diseases and disorders medical. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs where multiple types of dengue virus are simultaneously or sequentially transmitted. Pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and its impact on. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in thailand, 19621964. Burke, evidence that maternal dengue antibodies are important in the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants, american journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. Louis encephalitis virus, japanese encephalitis virus, tickborne encephalitis virus, kyasanur forest disease virus, and omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Dengue fever is the worlds most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically widespread of the arthropodborn viruses, and it causes a. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf are caused by one of four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes den1, den2, den3, and den4, of the genus flavivirus. Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are reemerging diseases that are endemic in the tropics. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban. A program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue. Dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf was higher in situations of hyperendemicity when two or more virus serotypes were circulating simultaneously.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by some mosquitos. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue fever is a disease spread by the aedes aegypti mosquito and caused by one of four dengue viruses that are closely related. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever frequently asked. Dengue hemorrhagic fever india pdf ppt case reports. It is an arboviral infection caused by the family flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf is the most significant mosquitoborne viral disease worldwide in terms of illness, mortality and economic cost, but the pathogenesis of dhf is not well understood.
Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Free powerpoint templates page 6 free powerpoint templates. Pdf retinoids, race and the pathogenesis of dengue. Immunopathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever journal of. Symptoms of dengue can occur from 314 days, commonly 47 days, after the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever are fever that lasts from 2 to 7 days, vomiting blood, drowsiness, bleeding from nose or gums. The dengue virus denv with its four unique serotypes is transmitted by the aedes mosquito vector in tropical countries worldwide. Dengue fever dengue hemorrhagic fever dengue fever dengue hemorrhagic fever bruce r. Around the time the fever begins to subside usually 37 days after symptom onset, the patient may develop warning signs of severe disease. It is a vasculopathy that consists in endothelial lesions which allow plasma leakage and hemorrhages. While yellow fever virus has been confined to sylvan foci in africa and south america, dengue viruses have kept pace with the urban encroach ments of a. Dengue fever is a virus transmitted to humans through bites from the aedes mosquito, a daybiting mosquito. Dengue fever is a common mosquitoborne illness in many tropical and subtropical countries. However, the infection can progress into a more serious condition known as severe dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever.
It is endemic in all of tropical america and asia, where warm temperatures and the practices of water storage in homes plus outdoor breeding sites result in large, permanent populations of a. One study estimated that 50 million infections occur every year. Dengue dengue haemorrhagic fever prevention and control. Symptoms include a high fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, and a rash. All serotypes can cause illness ranging from asymptomatic, selflimiting flu, dengue fever df, dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf and dengue shock syndrome dss. Nimmannitya s, halstead sb, cohen sn, margiotta mr. Department of health and human services centers for. Dengue feverdengue hemorrhagic fever dengue feverdengue hemorrhagic fever bruce r. Some patients with dengue fever go on to develop dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf, a severe and sometimes fatal form of the disease. Dengue virus infection causes dengue fever df, dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf, and dengue shock syndrome dss, whose pathogeneses are not clearly understood. The viruses that cause dengue fever are related to those that. Dhf is also called philippine, thai, or southeast asian hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
As both cell tropism and tissue tropism of denv are considered major determinants in the pathogenesis of dengue, there is a critical need for adequate tropism assays, animal models, and human autopsy data. It can also become dengue shock syndrome, which causes massive bleeding and shock. Wed like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Introduction dengue fever df and its severe manifestations such as dengue haemorrhagic fever dhf and dengue shock syndrome dss have emerged as an international public health problem, now endemic in more than 100 countries and affecting about 40% of the world population 2. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in southeast asia, africa, the western pacific, and the americas. Page 7 signs and symptoms early symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever are similar to those of dengue fever, but after several days the patient becomes irritable,restless, and sweaty. Dengue and dhf are viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. Summary dengue infection is caused by any of four dengue virus serotypes. Feb 05, 2014 if dengue hemorrhagic fever is untreated it may progress to dengue shock syndrome, a worst form of dengue which can also result to death. Dengue fever and international travel journal of travel. Other articles where dengue hemorrhagic fever is discussed. Nutritional status of children with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Other members of the same genus include yellow fever virus, west nile virus, zika virus, st. Viral virulence, infection enhancing antibodies, cytokines and chemical mediators in the setting of intense immune activation are the key players implicated in the pathogenesis of dhf.
Pathophysiology and management of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue haemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, risk factors, predictor, haematocrit introduction dengue fever is an endemic infective disease in malaysia. In 1998 this mosquitoborne disease is the most important. Observations on hospitalized patients with hemorrhagic fever. Known also as dengue hemorrhagic fever dhf, it starts abruptly with high continuous fever and headache plus respiratory and intestinal symptoms with sore throat.
A prospective nested casecontrol study of dengue in infants. The pathology of dengue hemorrhagic fever request pdf. A case report of dengue haemorrhagic fever complicated with psoas. Who, comprehensive guidelines for prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, 2011. The first major outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever dhf. Dengue fever is common in tropical areas, so take extra precautions if you travel somewhere with this type of climate. Denguedengue haemorrhagic fever prevention and control page 1 1. Dengue is an important cause of childhood and adult morbidity in asian and latin american countries and its geographic footprint is growing. Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden.
Dhf starts abruptly with high continuous fever and headache plus respiratory and intestinal symptoms with sore throat, cough, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Comprehensive guidelines for prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever vii dengue fever is the fastest emerging arboviral infection spread by aedes mosquitoes with major public health consequences in over 100 tropical and subtropical countries in southeast asia, the western pacific and south and central america. Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever clinical gate. Pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and its impact. This mosquitoborne virus is endemic in most tropical and subtropical countries of oceania, asia, the caribbean, the. Untreated dhf may result in blood vessel collapse, causing a usually fatal condition known as dengue shock syndrome. In some cases, dengue turns into dengue hemorrhagic fever, which causes bleeding from your nose, gums, or under your skin. The presence of preexisting dengue antibodies, either by prior infection or passive immunity via maternal antibodies, would in fact, enhance viral infectivity and multiplication leading to a higher viral. Dengue fever virus denv is an rna virus of the family flaviviridae. The clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to. Available data has indicated an increasing trend of dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence in indonesia over the past 50 years. Guerdan, md, mph abstract in september 2009 the first documented, locally acquired cases of dengue fever in eighty years were diagnosed in individuals living in or visiting key west, florida.235 699 884 550 1683 1461 848 1442 1412 107 1358 1663 4 936 1300 60 9 1163 179 711 834 1586 1240 1679 981 77 18 1677 237 1409 584 788 1611 610 589 295 1194 945 389 270 220 580 362