The fracking industry should be required to follow the clean water act laws they are currently exempt from. Chemicals used in the hydraulic fracturing process in pennsylvania. Usable water means water containing up to 10,000 ppm of total dissolved solids. The technology of hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon well stimulation is not new, but. All the requirements and assigned limits shall be applied during design and operations of welltests with injection. Fracking normally involves drilling straight down to a shale layer of rock and then drilling horizontally into the seam.
List of additives for hydraulic fracturing wikipedia. Hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as fracking, is the process of injecting water, sand, andor chemicals into a well to break up underground bedrock to free up oil or gas reserves. About shale gas and hydraulic fracturing fracking 11 a8. To help alleviate the confusion, hydraulic fracturing companies are not only ramping up their press campaigns, they are enhancing their product lines. Many citizens worry that the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, some of which are toxic, could end up in drinking water. Jul 03, 2012 chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing committee on energy and commerce, united states house of representatives on. Hydraulic fracturing download ebook pdf, epub, tuebl, mobi. Many of these impacts make themselves felt in water resources. What chemicals are used fracfocus chemical disclosure registry. Hydraulic fracturing for stimulation of oil and natural gas wells was first used in. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing chemicals yordas group. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is deep earth drilling through a layer of rock, known as shale, and then turning the hole horizontally in order to access multiple points of the rock layer.
List of 78 chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluid in. This site is like a library, use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want. Although there are dozens to hundreds of chemicals which could be used as additives, there are a limited number which are routinely used in hydraulic fracturing. The differences between additives for hydraulic fracturing in different countries are the type of chemicals used hazardous, nonhazardous, the disclosure of chemicals and the composition of fracturing fluid. From limiting the growth of bacteria to preventing corrosion of the well casing, chemicals are needed to insure that the fracturing job is effective and efficient. Hydraulic fracturing and reporting of the chemicals used in fracturing fluid is exempt. The most widely used chemical in hydraulic fracturing during this time period, as measured by the number of compounds containing the chemical, was methanol. What chemicals are used fracfocus chemical disclosure. Fracking is a waterintensive activity, and as the reserves are often found in dry areas. Epa testing methods to detect fracking chemical contamination. Hydraulic fracturing design and operations guidelines these guidelines set out the ministry of national infrastructure, energy, and water resources mniewr requirements for hydraulic fracturing design and operations. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in the oil and natural.
He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional fuels, synthetic fuels, and biofuels. Fears of water contamination have spread across the nation along with energy booms. Firstan explanation of the fracking process md hydraulic fracturing is a process that is used in the oil and gas industry, but more commonly associated with natural gas. The analysis of hydraulic fracturing fluid data from the fracfocus chemical disclosure registry 1. Although the hydraulic fracturing industry may have a number of compounds that can be used in a hydraulic fracturing fluid, any single fracturing job would only use a few of the available additives. Pdf this technical report is addressing the issue of chemical constituents and additives used in hydraulic fracturing and their occurrence in. How might water withdrawals affect short and longterm water availability in an area with hydraulic fracturing activity. Methanol, which was used in 342 hydraulic fracturing products, is a hazardous air pollutant and is on the candidate list for potential regulation under the safe drinking water act. Ebook handbook of hydraulic fracturing as pdf download. On november 23, 2011, epa granted in part and denied in part the tsca section 8a and section 8d requests by limiting the scope from chemicals and mixtures used in all processes of oil and gas exploration and production to chemical substances and mixtures used in hydraulic fracturing start printed page 28665 refs. Chemicals identified in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewater excel file this excel file of appendix a from the progress report contains tables of chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals detected in flowback and produced water. Does the assessment accurately and clearly summarize the available information concerning the sources and quantities of water used in hydraulic fracturing. Aug 21, 2014 agency scientists recently published results of a method to test for five chemicals that often appear in fracturing fluid.
A users guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology provides an easytouse manual to create fluid formulations that will meet projectspecific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. In response, the agency agreed to issue an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking to gather data on chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids, but declined to commit. Details emerging technologies such as fracture treatment design, open hole fracturing, screenless completions, sand control, fracturing completions and productivity. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation. For example if the fracturing record listed the chemical hydrogen chloride and you searched for it by name using a chemical search site you may not get a result. Spe 165692 hydraulic fracturing and organic compounds uses. Halliburton, the worlds largest provider of hydraulic fracturing services, says prices for some varieties of guar gum have surged more than 800 percent since january 2011. Assessment of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing.
What is hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, and what are its costs and benefits. The environment agency has powers to require full disclosure of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing in england and wales, both under the water resources act. Tsca the chemicals used in the well drilling and completion process, which is broader than just hydraulic fracturing fluids e. As previously noted, chemicals perform many functions in a hydraulic fracturing job. Stimulation fluid means the liquid or gas, and any accompanying solids, used during a treatment of oil and gas wells, such as the water, chemicals, and proppants used in hydraulic fracturing. Speight phd, dsc is a senior fuel and environmental consultant. Range resources, which uses contractor frac tech for its fracing work, says its frac fluid additives are chosen from a list of only nine compounds hydrochloric acid, methanol propargyl, polyacrylamide, glutaraldehyde, ethanol, ethylene glycol, alcohol and sodium hydroxide. Pdf analysis of chemical constituents and additives in hydraulic. The fracfocus chemical disclosure registry provides public disclosure of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives used in more than 55,000 wells by over 600 companies in the united states. Click download or read online button to get hydraulic fracturing book now. Hydraulic fracturing fracking procedures issues and benefits. How much water is used in hydraulic fracturing operations, and what are the sources of this water. A distinction can be made between conventional, lowvolume hydraulic fracturing, used to stimulate highpermeability reservoirs for a single well, and unconventional, highvolume hydraulic fracturing, used in the completion of tight gas and shale gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing design and operations guidelines.
Although fracfocus was designed for local users, it provides an opportunity to study the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids nationwide. Chemicals serve many functions in hydraulic fracturing. Methanol,which was used in 342 hydraulic fracturing products, is a hazardous air pollutant and is on thecandidate list for potential regulation under the safe drinking water act. Between 2005 and 2009, the oil and gas service companies used hydraulic fracturing products containing 29 chemicals that are 1 known or possible human carcinogens, 2. Chemical use in hydraulic fracturing fracfocus chemical. Federal register hydraulic fracturing chemicals and mixtures. The following is a list of the chemicals used most often. Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. Later, chemical stabilizers were developed that could be used alone or with. For example, the chart shown above, represents 12 additives used, covering the range of possible functions that could be built into a fracturing fluid.
Description content reference chemicals and other components used by 14 hydraulic fracturing service companies from 2005 to 2009 as reported to the house committee on energy and commerce. Hydraulic fracturing operations do not typically meet the requirements for epcra reporting, however some of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing are classified as hazardous under cercla, which requires that releases of hazardous chemicals, such as hydrochloric acid, into the environment are reported us epa 2018. Many fracking programmes are now pursuing slickwater. Handbook of hydraulic fracturing wiley online books. Hydraulic fracturing technology download ebook pdf, epub. Reservoir geology and operator practices influence the amount of water and the mix of chemicals used in the hydraulic. What are the possible impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing operations on local water quality. Oct 08, 2015 stage in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle is water acquisition. Hydraulic fracturing fluids pumped into the wells are mainly composed of water approximately. Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as fracking, is an oil and gas well development process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well. The number of chemical additives used and their concentrations is dependent on the well. Mar 18, 2016 presents an uptodate description of current and new hydraulic fracturing processes.
Do not make a call, text, apply makeup, eat, or do anything other than focus on driving. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing fluid data from the. Study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on. Apr 26, 2011 the most widely used chemical in hydraulic fracturing during this time period, asmeasured by the number of compounds containing the chemical, was methanol. Overall, these companies used 780 million gallons of hydraulic fracturing products not including water added at the well site between 2005 and 2009. Chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The usgs monitors the environmental impact of this practice across the country, from potential earthquakes to degraded groundwater quality.
This process uses hydraulic pressure to fracture, or break. Between 2005 and 2009, the 14 oil and gas service companies used more than 2,500 hydraulic fracturing products containing 750 chemicals and other components. Description of sources used to create lists of chemicals used in fracturing fluids or detected in flowback or produced water. Fracfocus is a hydraulic fracturing chemical registry website designed to provide information about chemicals used in the hf of oil and gas wells. What chemicals are used in shale gas fracking in the uk. An earlier version of the list, provided by dep to the associated press and published in newspapers throughout the state this week, purportedly included all of the chemicals used in pennsylvania during the gas extraction process called hydraulic fracturing. The well header table outlined in blue in figure 1 contains information about the well itself, including.1610 43 1432 4 803 1595 572 1086 379 1141 360 178 127 112 239 467 719 218 1441 1067 437 728 14 509 101 732 1213